Hva er effektiv altruisme?

Under har vi samlet tips til videoer, podcaster, artikler og bøker som gir korte innføringer i sentrale konsepter i effektiv altruisme.
Effektiv altruisme er en internasjonal bevegelse og en filosofisk retning organisert rundt ideen om at man kan bruke forskning og fornuft for å utrette mest mulig godt i verden. Vi stiller spørsmålet "Hvordan kan vi, med de begrensede ressursene vi har tilgjengelig, gjøre en størst mulig positiv forskjell i verden?", og forsøker å svare på dette spørsmålet ved å anvende vitenskapelig metode, grundig evaluering og rasjonell analyse.

For å måle effekten av ulike verdensproblemer og saksområder er det spesielt tre kriterier vi vurderer:

Hvor stort er problemet? Vil fremskritt på dette området drastisk forbedre mange liv?
Vet vi at mer innsats og ressurser til dette området vil gjøre en betydelig forskjell?
Er området oversett eller undervurdert av de fleste andre? Hvor mange ressurser blir allerede brukt på å løse problemet?
Hva er effektiv altruisme?
Will MacAskill: What are the most
important moral problems of our time?
Beth Barnes: What Is Effective Altruism?
Fattigdomsbekjempelse og global utvikling
Esther Duflo: Social Experiments to Fight Poverty
Dan Palotta: The Way We Think about Charity Is Dead Wrong
Eksistensielle farer
Stuart Armstrong: Existential Risks And Extreme Opportunities
Nick Bostrom: What Happens When Our Computers Get Smarter Than We Are?
Jon Bockman, ACE: How to EFFECTIVELY Reduce Animal Suffering?
What Is Factory Farming? Us And the Planet
Podcaster relatert til effektiv altruisme
Artikler om Effektiv Altruisme
Effektiv altruisme og saksprioritering
What is Effective Altruism? (Effective Altruism Forum, William MacAskill, 2013)

Aim High, Even If You Fall Short (Giving Gladly, Julia Wise, 2014)

Misconceptions about effective altruisme (80,000 hours blog, Will MacAskill and Ben Todd, 2020)

Why I've come to think global priorities research is more important that I thought (80,000 hours blog, Ben Todd, 2020)
Fattigdomsbekjempelse og global utvikling
The Drowning Child and The Expanding Circle (New Internationalist, Peter Singer, 1997)

Famine, Affluence and Morality (Giving What We Can, Peter Singer, 1971)

"Efficiency" Measures misses the point. (Harvard Buisness Review, Dan Palotta, 2009)

High impact science (80,000 Hours blog, Carl Shulman, 2011)

Give a man a fish, he eats for a day. But if you lobby for better fishing policy... (Vox Future Perfect, Kelsey Piper, 2019)

Why Charity Entrepreneurship is researching mental health and happiness (Charity Entrepreneurship, George Bridgwater, 2020)
Langsiktig framtid og eksistensielle farer
Preventing Human Extinction (Effective Altruism Forum, Beckstead, Singer and Wage, 2013)

Existential Risk Prevention as Global Priority (Global Policy, Vol 4, Issue 1, Nick Bostrom, 2013)

Are We Living in the Most Influential Time in History? (Effective Altruism Forum, Will MacAskill, 2019)

Objectives of Longtermist Policy Making (Effective Altruism Forum, Andersen, Graabak, Massey, Myhre and Warholm, 2021)
Bøker om Effektiv Altruisme

Ta kontakt hvis du er interessert i å lese noen av disse bøkene. Vi har dem kanskje på lager til en billig penge.

"Beautifully written and extremely smart. Doing Good Better should be required reading for anyone interested in making the world better."

Steven Levitt, Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago and author of Freakonomics
Doing Good Better (2015) by William MacAskill

Most of us want to make a difference. We donate our time and money to causes we deem worthy, choose careers we consider meaningful, and buy products we believe make the world a better place. Unfortunately, we often base these decisions on pure emotions rather than facts. As a result, even our best intentions often lead to ineffective and sometimes downright harmful outcomes.

Oxford researcher William MacAskill discovered that much of the potential for doing better was wasted by lack of information, bad data, and our own prejudice. As an antidote, he and his colleagues started effective altruism, a practical, data-driven approach that allows each of us to make a tremendous difference regardless of our resources.

At the core of this philosophy are five key questions that help guide our altruistic decisions: How many people benefit, and by how much? Is this the most effective thing I can do? Is this area neglected? What would have happened otherwise? What are the chances of success, and how good would success be? By applying these questions to real-life scenarios, MacAskill shows how many of our assumptions about doing good are misguided. For instance, he argues one can potentially save more lives by becoming a plastic surgeon rather than a heart surgeon; measuring overhead costs is an inaccurate gauge of a charity's effectiveness; and, it generally doesn't make sense to donate to disaster relief.

MacAskill urges us to think differently, set aside biases, and use evidence and careful reasoning rather than act on impulse. When we do this when we apply the head "and "the heart to each of our altruistic endeavors we find that each of us has the power to do an astonishing amount of good.

"A powerfully argued book that alerts us to what is perhaps the most important - and yet also the most neglected - problem we will ever face."

Peter Singer, Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University and author of The Life You Can Save
The Precipice (2020) by Toby Ord

The Precipice is a landmark book that provides a new way of thinking about our time.

We live during the most important era of human history. In the twentieth century, we developed the means to destroy ourselves - without developing the moral framework to ensure we won't. This is the Precipice, and how we respond to it will be the most crucial decision of our time.

Oxford moral philosopher Toby Ord explores the risk to humanity's future, from the threats of climate change and nuclear war, to the potentially greater, more unfamiliar risks from engineered pandemics and advanced artificial intelligence. With clear and rigorous thinking, Ord calculates the various risk levels, and shows how our own time fits within the larger story of human history. Can we protect the legacy of the hundred billion people who have come before us, and secure the future for the trillions that could follow? What can we do, in our present moment, to face the risks head on?

A major work that brings together the disciplines of physics, biology, earth and computer science, history, anthropology, statistics, international relations, political science and moral philosophy, The Precipice is a call for a new understanding of our age: a major reorientation in the way we see the world, and the role we play in it.

"Singer makes a strong case for a simple idea—that each of us has a tremendous opportunity to help others with our abilities, time and money. The Most Good You Can Do is an optimistic and compelling look at the positive impact that giving can have on the world."

Bill and Melinda Gates, co-chairs of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
The Most Good You Can Do (2015) by Peter Singer

Peter Singer's books and ideas have been disturbing our complacency ever since the appearance of Animal Liberation. Now he directs our attention to a new movement in which his own ideas have played a crucial role: effective altruism. Effective altruism is built upon the simple but profound idea that living a fully ethical life involves doing the "most good you can do." Such a life requires an unsentimental view of charitable giving: to be a worthy recipient of our support, an organization must be able to demonstrate that it will do more good with our money or our time than other options open to us.

Singer introduces us to an array of remarkable people who are restructuring their lives in accordance with these ideas, and shows how living altruistically often leads to greater personal fulfillment than living for oneself. The Most Good You Can Do develops the challenges Singer has made, in the New York Times and Washington Post, to those who donate to the arts, and to charities focused on helping our fellow citizens, rather than those for whom we can do the most good.

Effective altruists are extending our knowledge of the possibilities of living less selfishly, and of allowing reason, rather than emotion, to determine how we live. The Most Good You Can Do offers new hope for our ability to tackle the world's most pressing problems.

"Poor Economics is a must-read for anyone who cares about world poverty. It has been years since I read a book that taught me so much. This book represents the best that economics has to offer."

Steven D. Levitt, Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago and author of Freakonomics
Poor Economics (2011) by Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo

Why would a man in Morocco who doesn't have enough to eat buy a television?
Why do the poorest people in India spend 7 percent of their food budget on sugar?
Does having lots of children actually make you poorer?

This eye-opening book overturns the myths about what it is like to live on very little, revealing the unexpected decisions that millions of people make every day. Looking at some of the most paradoxical aspects of life below the poverty line - why the poor need to borrow in order to save, why incentives that seem effective to us may not be for them, and why, despite being more risk-taking than high financiers, they start businesses but rarely grow them - Banerjee and Duflo offer a new understanding of the surprising way the world really works.

Through their work, Banerjee and Duflo look at some of the most surprising facets of poverty: why they miss out on free life-saving immunizations but pay for drugs that they do not need, and many other puzzling facts about living with less than 99 cents per day. Poor Economics argues that so much of anti-poverty policy has failed over the years because of an inadequate understanding of poverty. The battle against poverty can be won, but it will take patience, careful thinking and a willingness to learn from evidence.

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